Kufour focused much of his presidency on continuing to develop Ghana's economy and international reputation. The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. 2. Europeans first came into the land in the 15th century. The Portuguese, the 1st Europeans who came to medieval Ghana, arrived in its coast in 1471. The empire became known in Europe and Arabia as the Ghana Empire after the title of its Emperor, the Ghana. Ghana: A Country Study, U.S. Library of Congress., 1994, Washington. Ghana, country of western Africa, situated on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea. b) English. During this brief history of Ghana, education came in form of advice by the experienced and aged elders in the community. BBC News, December 1, 2000. Despite Nkrumah's efforts to secure Ghana's energy independence through the Akosambo Dam, electricity remains one of Ghana's hurdles more than 50 years later. This added to Ghana's wealth in resources but has not yet brought a boost to Ghana's economy. The shift to democracy led to further aid from the West, and Ghana's economic recovery continued to gain steam in the eight years of Rawlings' presidential rule. After a constitution was drafted for the Second Republic, elections were held in 1969. By the 1960's, tourists began pouring in to see Accra and Ghana’s coast. Inflation ran rampant. Rawlings was prohibited by term limits from running for President a third time. Ghana produces a variety of crops in various climatic zones which range from dry savanna to wet forest and which run in east–west bands across Ghana. He was also an ardent pan-Africanist and helped found the Organization of African Unity. History of Ghana Education. The Portuguese built slaves on the Gold Coast and during the 16th century, they traded with the native peoples. In the lead up to the Union Government elections, Acheampong was replaced by Lieutenant General F. W. K. Affufo and restrictions on political opposition were lessened. Formerly: the Gold Coast, a British colony. View Images. A Short History of Ghana You are here: Countries / Ghana Ancient Ghana is originally located hundreds of miles at the north of present-day Ghana between the Senegal and Niger rivers. Some key dates in Ghana's history: 1482 - Portuguese settlers arrive and begin trading in gold, ivory and timber with various Akan states. Berry, La Verle (Editor). Thus, they named the land “Mina” meaning mine. /p>. The opposition party's candidate John Kufour won the Presidential elections. A recent report by the BBC has said that Ghana has a very well-structured educational system. When push came to shove, however, Rawlings and the PNDC balked at decentralizing too much power. Kufour had run and lost to Rawlings in 1996, and the orderly transition between parties was an important sign of the political stability of Ghana's new republic. Initially, Nkrumah rode a wave of support in Ghana and the world. In 2008, John Atta Mills (Rawlings' former Vice President who had lost to Kufour in the 2000 elections) won the election and became Ghana's next president. It was established in 1986 in accordance with the Professional Bodies Regulatory Decree, NRCD 143 of 1973. This benefited many people in the short term, but the economy worsened in the long term. Ghana's economic outlook may be mixed, but analysts remain hopeful, pointing to the stability and strength of Ghana's democracy and society. The Independence Arch is a symbol of this momentous occasion in the country’s history. In 1981, it was 116 percent. History of Ghana The name Ghana originates from an African empire, which was located around River Niger between 400 and 1240 AD. Its neighbouring countries are Cote D'Ivoire, Togo, and Burkina Faso, and the capital is Accra. Author(s): By Nkrumah, Kwame . Paper delivered at the Heritage and Identity Session, BWA Annual Gathering, Ghana, July 2007. Discover surprising insights and little-known facts about politics, literature, science, and the marvels of the natural world. Nkrumah tried to free Ghana from this dependence by building the Akosambo Dam on the Volta River, but the project put Ghana deeply in debt and created intense opposition. African-Americans, including Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X, visited Ghana, and many Africans still struggling for their own independence looked on it as a beacon of the future to come. The Council set up local Provisional Defense Committees (PDC) throughout the country. Ghana is mainly flat, but there are hills in the northern part of the country. "Historical Background." They were Johann Philip Henke, Gottlieb Holzwarth, Karl F. Salbach, and Johann Gottlob Schmidt.e They were sent as a result of a request by Major de Richelieu,… In 1964, faced with growing resentment and afraid of internal opposition, Nkrumah pushed a constitutional amendment that made Ghana a one-party state and made himself the life president. Brief History Modern Ghana takes its name from the ancient kingdom of Ghana that flourished, north of the present day state, between the 4th and 11th centuries A.D. Like many new African states, Ghana also suffered from regional factionalism. African-Americans, including Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X, visited Ghana, and many Africans still struggling for their own independence looked on it as a beacon of the future to come. Its actual name is Wagadugu Empire and the name “Ghana” was the title accorded to the rulers of the kingdom. History of Ghana Medieval Ghana (4th - 13th Century): The Republic of Ghana is named after the medieval Ghana Empire of West Africa. The 1996 elections that followed were deemed free and fair, and Rawlings won those as well. When the government was unable to fix the economy and corruption continued, Rawlings launched a second coup. Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, the premier tertiary healthcare facility in Ghana, was established on October 9, 1923. Ghana's economy had negative growth (meaning the gross domestic product declined) throughout the 1970s, as it had in the late 1960s. Ghana’s independence from Britain in 1957 was widely celebrated in the African diaspora. Cocoa prices were also slumping and Ghana's share of the market had declined. The year 1957 marked the independence of the Gold Coast from the British and was known as the Republic of Ghana. The Portuguese reached what is now Ghana in 1471. Ghana is located in West Africa and is sandwiched between Cote d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) and Togo. The beginning of the book talks about Kwame Nkrumah’s birth and early childhood. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. b) Togo. In 1902, Ashanti became officially part of the British colony of Gold Coast. How was Ghana formerly known? Ghana was freed from colonial rule in 1957, following post-WWII strife. Busia became the Prime Minister and a Chief Justice, Edward Akufo-Addo, became the President. Although relatively small in area and population, Ghana is one of the leading countries of Africa, partly because of its considerable natural wealth and partly because it was the first black African country south of the Sahara to achieve independence from colonial rule. Eventually, his economic policies brought improvements, and he is credited with having helped save Ghana's economy from collapse. The History of education in Ghana dates back to 1592. "Rawlings: the Legacy." Just a few months after the PNDC came to power, they executed several members of an alleged plot to overthrow the government. Rawlings ran for the National Democratic Congress party and won the elections. Ghana Quiz Questions with Answers. Which is the official language of Ghana? After the elections, the new president Dr. Hilla Limann forced Rawlings and his co-officers into retirement. Its actual name is Wagadugu Empire and the name “Ghana” was the title accorded to the rulers of the kingdom. The name was changed to Ghana because its thought that the present day natives ancestors were migrants from the ancient kingdom of Ghana. Some houses are built along the water in Accra, Ghana's largest city. The earliest Baptist work in Ghana was by one Mark C. Hayford, a Ghanaian, who received his call and ordination to the ministry in Nigeria. Before the invasion and colonialism of Ghana, the people used traditional methods in giving education to the young generation. Rawlings and six other men formed a Provisional National Defense Council (PNDC) with Rawlings as the chair. He was an experienced politician. The reason Rawlings and the other officers gave for taking power just weeks before national elections was that the new Union Government would be no more stable or effective than previous governments. Much was expected and hoped for from Ghana at independence but like all new countries during the Cold War, Ghana faced immense challenges. The history of Ghana, however, dates back ever further to the Sudanic empires of West Africa that controlled the trade in gold and salt to and from the Trans-Saharan trade routes. In 1661, the Danish built a fortress which they called Christianborg Castle in Osu (present-day Accra) which became their center of slave trading. After 11 years, the Portuguese built the Elmina Castle where they stayed and inhabited. Nkrumah raised taxes, including on cocoa farmers, to help pay for the dam. 5. Rawlings remained Ghana's head of state for the next 20 years. If we are to trace the history of education in Ghana, we will be going as far back as 1592. These committees were supposed to create democratic processes at the local level. Which is the capital of Ghana? As Rawlings moved away from his socialist colleagues, he gained enormous financial support from Western governments for Ghana. Due to the loads of gold production, Gold Coast became the name of the country popular to other European nations. After independence, its name changed to Ghana, and the first president was Kwame Nkrumah. The name Ghana was the title given to the king who ruled the empire which was a … This was a key theme in the early history of Ghana's independence. Perhaps it is unsurprising, then, that the contentious Union Government proposal passed in a 1978 national referendum. The project also forced the relocation of some 80,000 people. The country returned to democratic rule in 1992 and has built a reputation as a stable, liberal economy. Soon, Gold Coast became the trade center of European nations. Mike Lawn/Fox Photos/Hulton Archive/Getty Images, Jonathan C. Katzenellenbogen/Getty Images, A Brief History of the African Country of Liberia, Biography of Julius Kambarage Nyerere, Father of Tanzania, Biography of Nicolas Maduro, Embattled President of Venezuela, The History of Modern-Day Myanmar (Burma), The Guatemalan Civil War: History and Impact, Biography of Fulgencio Batista, Cuban President and Dictator, Ph.D., History, University of Michigan - Ann Arbor, M.A., History, University of Michigan - Ann Arbor, B.A./B.S, History and Zoology, University of Florida. The Empire appears to have broken up following the 1076 conquest by the Almoravid General Abu-Bakr Ibn-Umar. The oil discovery has also increased Ghana's economic vulnerability, and the 2015 crash in oil prices decreased revenue. The history of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana is traced to 18th December 1828, when four young missionaries from the Basel Evangelical Missionary Society arrived at Christiansborg, Osu. Amidst rising discontent, Acheampong and his staff proposed a Union Government, which was to be a government ruled by the military and civilians. Ghana, however, faced all the daunting challenges of independence that would soon be felt across Africa. Agriculture in Ghana consists of a variety of agricultural products and is an established economic sector, and provides employment on a formal and informal basis. There was opposition from the beginning, however. Once again, people were optimistic and believed the new government would handle Ghana's problems better than Nkrumah. As a beginning, I present a brief history of Ghana: Modern Ghana in West Africa, takes it name from the ancient kingdom of Ghana, which was approximately 500 miles north of … ​On February 24, 1966, a group of officers led a coup to overthrow Nkrumah while Kwame Nkrumah was in China. A Brief History of Ghana Year 00AD 500 The modernGhana was inhabited in pre-colonial times by a number of ancient kingdoms, including the Ga-Dagames on the eastern coast, The Ashanti are thought to originate from the Far East of Africa from the ancient Sudanic empires via the Ivory Coast, where they still inhabit. They also purged the higher ranks of the military. Rawlings' populist touch and charisma won over crowds and he initially enjoyed support. Between 1976 and 1981, the inflation rate averaged around 50 percent. The Church of Pentecost, like most great institutions, started in a small way. Ghana was the world's leading producer of cocoa, boasted a well-developed infrastructure to service trade, and enjoyed a relatively advanced education system. The "revolution" Rawlings led had Socialist leanings, but it was also a populist movement. He was thus the first President of Ghana's Fourth Republic. They found it was a rich source of gold. 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